Learning differences and learning difficulties
Characteristics of individuals with dyslexia
A unique structured approach for each person who has dyslexia
The principles of the dyslexia@baytm system
How exactly do we all learn differently?
How do visual learners prefer to learn?
How do auditory learners prefer to learn?
How do practical/kinaesthetic learners prefer to learn?
How do you prefer to learn?
How do learning differences arise and what are the implications?
What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
Difficulties associated with reading
Difficulties associated with writing
Difficulties associated with spelling
Non-language difficulties associated with dyslexia
How do most students learn to spell?
What are the different types of memory?
How are most students taught to spell in school?
Why does a phonetic spelling strategy not suit all students?
How do most people who do not have a learning difficulty learn to spell new words?
Why do people, when asked to spell an uncommon word, write down the word to see if the spelling “looks right”?
Using phonics is easy isn’t it?
Eye-tracking problems and their implications
What are the symptoms of eye-tracking problems?
Why can my child read small words but have difficulty with longer words?
Why does my child read some words backwards e.g. “no” for “on”, “was” for “saw”?
Why does my normally bright child find it difficult to remember which is left and which is right?
Why does my child often read the same line again or skip lines when he is reading?
Why does my child often “lose his place” when he is reading?
Why does my child have difficulty copying a list of words accurately from the blackboard into his exercise book?
What does it feel like to have an eye-tracking problem when reading?
Why does my child lose concentration after reading for a period of time?
How do we understand and remember what we read
What are the four main stages in reading?
How do eye-tracking difficulties affect comprehension?
What is mechanical reading?
Why do some people read in a monotone and disregard punctuation?
Why does my child complain that reading is boring and yet enjoys a book being read to him?
Difficulties associated with written work
Why do students with dyslexia often produce written work that is inconsistent with their oral ability?
What exactly do we mean by ‘sequence’ in written work?
Why does the written work of children with dyslexia often lack sequence?
How do children without dyslexia write essays that are in sequence and not mixed up?
Why are some student with dyslexia great at telling stories orally with plenty of description and feeling, but yet this is not transferred to their written work?
Why do some students with dyslexia read in a monotone whereas normally they have an animated voice?
Why do older students have difficulty analysing the most important points about a chapter of a book?
Sequencing problems and their implications
What exactly is sequencing?
What difficulties arise for those students who have sequencing problems?
What are the different modes of memory?
How exactly do we use our visual memory to sequence?
Why are some students with dyslexia unable to follow the plot of a story they are reading?
Why do some students who have dyslexia, have no sense of the amount of time passing?
Why do students with dyslexia feel overwhelm when doing homework?
Why does my child seem unable to follow a set of simple instructions?
What are the implications of being unable to follow a set of simple instructions?
Why are some students with dyslexia very good at mathematics, sometimes exceptionally brilliant?
What is dominance and why is it important?
Is it possible to have mixed dominance between the hand and the foot?
How can I discover a person’s dominant hand?
How can I discover a person’s dominant foot?
Is it possible to have mixed dominance between the hand and the ear?
How can I discover a person’s dominant ear
How can I discover a person’s dominant eye?
What are the implications of knowing which is the dominant eye?
Problems associated with clockwise/anti-clockwise dominance
Why do some people have difficulty learning to tell the time?
Why do some children mix up b’s and d’s?
Why do some people draw a 3 or a 6 or other numbers back to front?
Why do some students write numbers and letters differently?
How do our eyes “see” words and letters and how does our brain process this visual information so that we can read?
What is the significance of having eyes in the front of our head?
How exactly does stereoscopic vision enable us to see in three dimensions and to judge distance?
Does the position of the book relative to the eyes make a difference to reading ability?
Why does my child insist on holding a book “crooked” when reading?
So how exactly do eyes “see”?
If each eye sees a slightly different image how does the brain interpret these so that we are conscious of seeing only one image?
Why does our brain store images in our visual memory in such a complicated fashion?
How do we use the sophisticated memory structure of our brain when learning how to read
Why are some people more aware of shape or colour than others?
Why do some children learn their letters easily and others find it more difficult?
How can I encourage my child to become more shape conscious and more easily recognise letters?
Visual and physical symptoms associated with light sensitivity
Why do some students complain that words move on a page or that they see blotches, diamonds or circles on a page when they are reading?
Why do some students complain of “tired eyes” (Asthenopia) or a “sore head” when they read?
Why do some students complain they are physically uncomfortable when reading?
Glare (light sensitivity, photophobia)
What are the signs of visual problems?
Some terms which an ophthalmic optician or an optometrist may use
Saccadal eye movement problems
Suggestions to help student who have dyslexia in a classroom environment
Location of the student in the classroom
Visual presentation of course work
Students with dyslexia should be encouraged to write on their textbooks!
Black/white board presentation
The difference in ease of reading different font size is sizeable!
Mind maps or spider diagrams
Reading material for students with dyslexia
Suitable reading material for students with dyslexia
What is suitable material for students with dyslexia to read?
A student should read because he/she wants to read!!!
How do I use the Internet to find suitable material for my son or daughter?
I don’t know anything about the Internet or computers so how do I get all this free, interesting and useful material?
Some students want to read relevant sections in the newspaper but the newspaper print seems too small for them to be able to read. Is there anything i can do about this?
What is the function of paired reading?
Conditions of successful paired reading
Steps in implementing paired reading
The dyslexia@bay™ model of the brain
How does our brain work and what is different about how the brain of a person with dyslexia works?
What do we mean by the word ‘model’?
How does memory work?
How does memory affect behaviour?
Do we have different types of visual memory?
Visual Static Memory
Visual Dynamic Memory
How do visual static and visual dynamic memory interact?
Logic and time
How do we think logically?
How exactly does our brain store time?
What do we mean by sequencing and what exactly do the words “before” and “after” mean with respect to time?
Summary: The dyslexia@baytm model of the brain
Visual Static Memory
Visual Dynamic memory
Educational Psychologist’s report
Intellectual and behavioural factors
How should I prepare my child for an Educational Psychologist’s assessment?
The Educational Psychologist’s report
What does “percentile” mean?
What is IQ?
What is the IQ test most commonly used and how do I understand it and make use of it?
The tests described above establish an individual’s IQ and learning profile. Are there other tests to measure th educational achievement of an individual?
What do I do with an educational Psychologist ’s report?
What causes dyslexia?
- Cognitive theories
- If there are so many theories about the cause of dyslexia which one is true?
Famous people who are reported to have/had dyslexia
We often hear of famous people who have coped with dyslexia and been successful in life. We are encouraged to tell our children about these people but who are/were they?
Learning differences and disabilities
- Learning differences
- Learning disabilities